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7. Now try CCC, ACC, GCC, and UCC. Comparing these results to the ones above, can you say whether some positions in the codon are less important than others in specifying which amino acid is coded for?

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code for anything (AUCGGGCAACGGGACAGGGGG, for instance, where the G's in between AUC, AAC and ACA aren't Nike Air Max 90 2015 Mens

During the late 1950s and early 1960s researchers were able to solve one of the major secrets of life, how genes worked. The problem the researchers were trying to solve was how a linear sequence of four nucleotides (A, G, C, and U) in RNA determined the amino acid sequence of proteins made up of twenty different amino acids. The simulation, TranslationLab will allow you to reproduce some of the experiments that the scientists used to figure out how this was accomplished. DNA from the Beginning has an animation describing some of these experiments and the scientists conclusions. The basic idea behind the experiments was to synthesize RNA molecules by combining short RNA sequences into a longer mRNA that is then translated in vitro in a cell free extract. For instance, If an AU dimer is linked together you get an RNA molecule with the sequence AUAUAUAU. In the in vitro translation, radioactive amino acids are incorporated into the protein synthesized from the message, and by determining which amino acids are made into protein you get clues about the genetic code. Your mission, should you choose to accept it, is to crack the genetic code of life. Be sure to read the introduction in the lab manual or the background at the site before you begin. If your molecular biology is a little rusty, you might want to check out some background information on transcription and translation before you begin. The purpose of this laboratory is to:

6. Now try AU, AAU and AUU. Did you notice something different this time? What happened and how would you explain this unusual result? List any new codon assignments that you were able to make from these experiments. Use tetranucleotides to figure out the amino acids that go with the correct assignments for the codons that can be produced using only A and U. What unusual result did you see with some of the tetranucleotides and what is your explanation for this result?

3. While the Nirenberg experiments showed that RNA did determine the amino acids in the protein, they did not show how many bases were used for each codon, whether the codes were overlapping (is the second codon read from the second base [overlapping] or from the first base after the last base of the first codon [no overlap]), or whether there could be bases in between the codons that did not Nike Air Max 90 Running Shoes Womens

Study the relationship between the nucleotide sequence of a mRNA molecule and protein synthesis. Simulate pioneering experiments that were used to delineate the genetic code. Demonstrate how a mutation in the nucleotide sequence of a mRNA molecule results in a change in the amino acid sequence of a protein. Learn how to use logical inferences to figure out how the process of translation works You need to use careful logic to figure out the answers to the following question and you must show your reasoning. For each problem, describe the results (what your template sequence was and what protein was produced by each template) and and your conclusions, along with the logical reasoning that shows that your conclusion is supported by your results. You may work in groups to figure these out but be sure you understand the logic you use to solve these problems. This assignment is worth twenty points and is due in your discussion section, the week of April 5th.

translated into amino acids just like we use spaces to separate words in a sentence). Khorana developed a means to produce poly dinucleotide and, later, poly trinucleotide and poly tetranucleotide sequences of DNA that could then be transcribed into RNA. These artificial RNA templates were translated in the cell free translation mix. If the code is read two bases at a time how many different amino acids would you expect in a protein made from a poly dinucleotide such as GUGUGUGU? Try it and see whether your prediction was correct. From your results can you say whether the code is even or odd? Will you get a different result with UGUGUGUG than you did with GUGUGUGU? This result shows that in these crude extracts translation starts at a random location in the RNA sequence.

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1. As having each nucleotide code for one amino acid would only allow for four different amino acids per protein, it was obvious to the researchers that there had to be some conversion between multiple bases and each amino acid. Would two nucleotides at a time be sufficient to provide enough different combinations (called codons) to code for all twenty amino acids? Why or why not? Will three nucleotides per codon work? Why or Why not?

4. From what you've already discovered, what do you think will happen if you use a poly trinucleotide such as GUG? Try it. Did you get the result you expected? Explain what happened. Will UGG or GGU give a different result? From these results can you now tell how many bases there are in a codon? If so, how many are there and how do you know this? Comparing this result to the result from the poly dinucleotide GU can you now specify a codon for one of the amino acids incorporated by these templates? If so, which codon and amino acid go together? By elimination, can you assign another codon amino acid pair? [hint: using what you know now look back at the dinucleotide experiment with GU] What is it? Try UGU next. Did the results support your codon assignment? Is there evidence here that one of the amino acids must have more than one codon that codes for it? If so, which one?

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Cracking the Genetic Code

5. What do you think will happen if you translate a tetranucleotide? Try translating the tetranucleotide GGUC. Did you get the result you expected? Can you now assign a codon to any of the other amino acids that appeared in problem 4 above? [Don't worry about any new amino acids that showed up here, just solve the codons for the amino acids in problem 4] If so, what are they? Test your assignment with GGUU. Did this confirm your results? Using the above data and any other experiments that are necessary, assign amino acids to all possible codons that do not Air Max 90 Black Pink include A or C, only various combinations of G and U.

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2. A major step forward in figuring out the code was the discovery by Nirenberg in 1961 that a cell free extract made from E. coli cells could translate RNA added to the extract into proteins. The newly synthesized proteins composition could be determined by measuring the incorporation of radioactive amino acids. In his first experiment he made poly U RNA (UUUUU.), using the enzyme polynucleotide synthetase, and translated it into poly phenylalanine (phe phe phe phe.) using the cell free extract. This was definitive proof that RNA could code for the synthesis of proteins and gave the first possible assignment of a nucleotide code to the amino acid it specified. Using TranslationLab, what does poly U code for? What do the other three bases each code for?

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